This is the bibliography compiled from the endnote references in After Access

Full bibliography (large file)

Abbas, Tahir. 2013. “Political Culture and National Identity in Conceptualising the Gezi Park Movement.” Insight Turkey 15 (4): 19–27.

Abby Liu. 2014. “China’s Crackdown on WeChat.” Global Voices. March 14.

Agar, Jon. 2003. Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone. Cambridge, UK: Icon Books.

Agarwal, Sheetal K., Arun Kumar, Amit Ani Nanavati, and Nitendra Rajput. 2009. “Content Creation and Dissemination by-and-for Users in Rural Areas.” In 2009 International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development, ICTD 2009 – Proceedings, 56–65. Doha, Qatar. doi:10.1109/ICTD.2009.5426702.

Agger, Ben. 2011. “iTime: Labor and Life in a Smartphone Era.” Time & Society 20 (1): 119–36. doi:10.1177/0961463X10380730.

Agüero, Aileen, Harsha de Silva, and Juhee Kang. 2011. “Bottom of the Pyramid Expenditure Patterns on Mobile Services in Selected Emerging Asian Countries.” Information Technologies & International Development 7 (3): 19–32.

Ahonen, Tomi. 2012. Tomi Ahonen Phone Book 2012. Hong Kong: Tomi Ahonen Consulting.

Åke Grönlund, Rebekah Heacock, David Sasaki, Johan Hellström, and Walid Al-Saqaf. 2010. Increasing Transparancy & Fighting Corruption through ICT: Empowering People & Communities. SPIDER ICTD Series #3. Stockholm: Universitetttervice US-AB.

Aker, Jenny C. 2011. “Dial ‘A’ for Agriculture: A Review of Information and Communication Technologies for Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries.” Agricultural Economics 42 (6). Medford, Mass.: 631–47. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2011.00545.x.

Aker, Jenny C., Christopher Ksoll, and Travis J. Lybbert. 2012. “Can Mobile Phones Improve Learning? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Niger.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 4 (4). Washington, DC: 94–120. doi:10.1257/app.4.4.94.

Alismail, Hatem, Aysha Siddique, M Beatrice Freddie Bernardine Dias, Anthony Velázquez, Sarah Belousov, Ermine A Teves, Rotimi Abimbola, Daniel Nuffer, Bradley Hall, and others. 2010. “Combining Web Technology and Mobile Phones to Enhance English Literacy in Underserved Communities.” In Proceedings of the First ACM Symposium on Computing for Development, 17. doi:10.1145/1926180.1926202.

Allan, Stuart. 2007. “Citizen Journalism and the Rise of ‘Mass Self-Communication’: Reporting the London Bombings.” Global Media Journal 1 (1): 1–20.

Alliance for Affordable Internet. 2013. “The Affordability Report 2013.” Washington, D.C. December 10.

Alvesson, Mats, and Kaj Sköldberg. 2009. Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.

Amadeo, Ron. 2014. “Motorola CEO Talks $50 Smartphone, Customizable Screen Sizes.” Ars Technica. January 22.

Amadeo, Ron. 2014. “Samsung’s Galaxy Tab3 Lite Should Be Its Cheapest Tablet Ever.” Ars Technica. January 16.

Amadeo, Ron. 2014. “Testing a $35 Firefox OS Phone—how Bad Could It Be?” Ars Technica. October 7.

Amanquah, Nathan, and Mjumo Mzyece. 2012. “Mobile Application Research and Development: The African Context.” In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Symposium on Computing for Development – ACM DEV ’12, np. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2160601.2160627.

Aminuzzaman, Salahuddin, Harald Baldersheim, and Ishtiaq Jamil. 2003. “Talking Back! Empowerment and Mobile Phones in Rural Bangladesh: A Study of the Village Phone Scheme of Grameen Bank.” Contemporary South Asia 12 (3): 327–48. doi:10.1080/0958493032000175879.

Anand, Abhinav, Veljko Pejovic, Elizabeth M. Belding, and David L. Johnson. 2012. “VillageCell: Cost Effective Cellular Connectivity in Rural Areas.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development – ICTD ’12, 180–89. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2160673.2160698.

Anderson, Chris, and Michael Wolff. 2010. “The Web Is Dead. Long Live the Internet.” Wired. September.

Andjelkovic, Maja, and Saori Imaizumi. 2012. “Mobile Entrepreneurship and Employment.” In Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile, edited by World Bank, 2011:75–86. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Angoitia, Regina De, and Fernando Ramirez. 2009. “Strategic Use of Mobile Telephony at the Bottom of the Pyramid : The Case of Mexico.” Information Technologies and International Development 5 (3): 35–53.

Antúnez-de-Mayolo, César. 2012. “The Role of Innovation at the Bottom of The Pyramid in Latin America: Eight Case Studies.” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 40 (January): 134–40. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.172.

Apple. 2014. “About Siri.” Apple Support Pages. October 13.

Arceneaux, Noah, and A. Schmitz Weiss. 2010. “Seems Stupid until You Try It: Press Coverage of Twitter, 2006-9.” New Media & Society 12 (8): 1262–79. doi:10.1177/1461444809360773.

Armbrust, Michael, Ion Stoica, Matei Zaharia, Armando Fox, Rean Griffith, Anthony D. Joseph, Randy Katz, et al. 2010. “A View of Cloud Computing.” Communications of the ACM 53 (4). ACM: 50–58. doi:10.1145/1721654.1721672.

Armstrong, Ann K., Joseph J. Mueller, and Tim Syrett. 2014. “The Smartphone Royalty Stack: Surveying Royalty Demands for the Components Within Modern Smartphones.” SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2443848.

Arnstein, Sherry R. 1969. “A Ladder Of Citizen Participation.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35 (4): 216–24. doi:10.1080/01944366908977225.

Arora, Payal. 2012. “The Leisure Divide: Can the ‘Third World’ Come out to Play?” Information Development 28 (2): 93–101. doi:10.1177/0266666911433607.

Ashraf, Md Mahfuz, Noushin Laila Ansari, Bushra Tahseen Malike, and Barnaly Rashid. 2012. “Evaluating the Impact of Mobile Phone Based ‘health Help Line’ Service in Rural Bangladesh.” In Proceedings of M4D2010 10-11 November, Kampala, Uganda, edited by Jakob Svensson and Gudrun Wicander, 15–29. Karlstad, Sweden: Universitetstryckeriet.

Atwood, Jeff. 2014. “10 Years of Coding Horror.” Coding Horror (blog). February 28.

Atzori, Luigi, Antonio Iera, and Giacomo Morabito. 2010. “The Internet of Things: A Survey.” Computer Networks 54 (15): 2787–2805. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2010.05.010.

Auld, Glenn, Ilana Snyder, and Michael Henderson. 2012. “Using Mobile Phones as Placed Resources for Literacy Learning in a Remote Indigenous Community in Australia.” Language and Education 26 (4). Routledge: 279–96. doi:10.1080/09500782.2012.691512.

Baig, Hassan. 2014. “Peering Into The Minds Of The 4.3 Billion Unconnected.” Techcrunch. November 29.

Bailur, Savita. 2009. “Representation and Reflexivity in ICT for Development (Telecentre) Research.” In Internationalization, Design and Global Development, edited by Nuray Aykin, 5623:319–27. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02767-3_36.

Balancing Act Africa. 2011. “New Report Gives Insights on Mobile Apps Potentials in Africa.” Balancing Act Africa. July 15.

Balancing Act Africa. 2013. “Smartphones vs Feature Phones – The Handset War That Will Shape the Coming Transition to All-Data Services.” April 5.

Balancing Act Africa. 2013. “The New Business Model – Everything Becomes Data but What Does It Mean for Operators in Africa?” Balancing Act Africa. February 1.

Balasubramanian, K., P. Thamizoli, Abdurrahman Umar, and Asha Kanwar. 2010. “Using Mobile Phones to Promote Lifelong Learning among Rural Women in Southern India.” Distance Education 31 (2). Routledge: 193–209. doi:10.1080/01587919.2010.502555.

Baldassar, Loretta, Core Vellekoop Baldock, and Raelene Wilding. 2007. Families Caring Across Borders: Migration, Aging and Transnational Caregiving. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Baldwin, Roberto. 2014. “Facebook Updates iOS and Android Apps with Nearby Friends Invites and Offline Likes.”

Banks, Ken, Sean Martin McDonald, and Florence Scialom. 2011. “Mobile Technology and the Last Mile: ‘Reluctant Innovation’ and FrontlineSMS.” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 6 (1). MIT Press 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142-1315 USA 7–12. doi:10.1162/INOV_a_00055.

Banks, Ken. 2012. “An Inconvenient Truth?” December 12.

Banks, Michael A. 2008. On the Way to the Web. Berkeley, CA: Apress. doi:10.1007/978-1-4302-0870-9.

Bar, François, Chris Coward, Lucas Koepke, Chris Rothschild, Araba Sey, and George Sciadas. 2013. “The Impact of Public Access to ICTs.” In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development Full Papers – ICTD ’13 – Volume 1, 34–42. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2516604.2516619.

Bar, François, Francis Pisani, and Matthew Weber. 2007. “Mobile Technology Appropriation in a Distant Mirror: Baroque Infiltration, Creolization and Cannibalism.” Paper Presented at Seminario Sobre Desarrollo Economico, Desarrollo Social Y Communicatciones Moviles in America Latina, April.

Bar, François, Melissa Brough, S. Costanza-Chock, Carmen Gonzalez, Cara J. Wallis, and Amanda Garces. 2009. “Mobile Voices: A Mobile, Open Source, Popular Communication Platform for First-Generation Immigrants in Los Angeles.” In “Mobile 2.0: Beyond Voice?” Pre-Conference Workshop at the International Communication Association (ICA). Chicago, IL.

Barker, Phillip. 2013. “Nokia Storyteller: Bring Memories Alive.” Nokia Conversations. October 29.

Baron, Naomi S. 2008. Always on: Language in an Online and Mobile World. New York: Oxford University Press, USA.

Baron, Naomi S. 2014. “Does Mobile Matter? The Case of One-off Reading.” In Routledge Companion to Mobile Media, edited by Gerard Goggin and Larissa Hjorth, 225–35. New York, New York, USA: Routledge.

Barr, Alistair, and Andy Pasztor. 2014. “Google Invests in Satellites to Spread Internet Access.” The Wall Street Journal. June 1.

Barrantes, Roxana, and Hernán Galperin. 2008. “Can the Poor Afford Mobile Telephony? Evidence from Latin America.” Telecommunications Policy 32 (8): 521–30. doi:

Battelle, John. 2012. “Put Your Taproot into the Independent Web.” Searchblog. January 24.

Battro, Antonio M. 2013. “One Laptop Per Child: Comments on Jeffrey James’s Critique.” Social Science Computer Review 31 (1): 133–35. doi:10.1177/0894439311421752.

Baumuller, Heike. 2012. Facilitating Agricultural Technology Adoption among the Poor: The Role of Service Delivery through Mobile Phones. Bonn.

Baym, Nancy. 2010. Personal Connections in the Digital Age. Cambridge: Polity.

BBC. 2013. “Nigeria: ANPP Anger over Free Phone Plan for Farmers.” BBC World News Online. January 8.

BBC. 2014. “Mozilla Plans ‘$25 Smartphone’ for Emerging Markets.” BBC News Online. February 23.

Beckmann, Elizabeth. 2010. “Learners on the Move: Mobile Modalities in Development Studies.” Distance Education 31 (2). Routledge: 159–73. doi:10.1080/01587919.2010.498081.

Bell, Daniel. 1976. The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books.

Bell, Genevieve, and Paul Dourish. 2006. “Yesterday’s Tomorrows: Notes on Ubiquitous Computing’s Dominant Vision.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 11 (2): 133–43. doi:10.1007/s00779-006-0071-x.

Bell, Genevieve. 2005. “The Age of the Thumb: A Cultural Reading of Mobile Technologies from Asia.” In , edited by Peter Glotz, Stefan Bertschi, and Chris Locke, 67–88. Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript Verlag.

Bello-Bravo, Julia, and Ibrahim Baoua. 2012. “Animated Videos as a Learning Tool in Developing Nations: A Pilot Study of Three Animations in Maradi and Surrounding Areas in Nigee.” Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries 55: 1–12.

Beniger, James R. 1986. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Benjamin, Peter. 2012. “mHealth Hope or Hype: Experiences from Cell-Life.” In mHealth in Practice: Mobile Technology for Health Promotion in the Developing World, edited by Jonathan Donner and Patricia Mechael, 62–71. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Benkler, Yochai. 2006. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven, Conn., USA: Yale University Press.

Benn, LJ. 2005. “Mobile Data Services in the South African Wireless Industry: A New Value Chain.” International Journal of Technology, Policy 5 (2): 121–31.

Bennett, W. Lance, and Alexandra Segerberg. 2012. “The Logic of Connective Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics.” Information, Communication & Society 15 (5): 739–68. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2012.670661.

Bentley, Caitlin. 2007. “The OLPC Laptop: Educational Revolution or Devolution?” In Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, 647–52. Chesapeake, VA, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

Berners-Lee, Tim, Robert Cailliau, Ari Luotonen, Henrik Frystyk Nielsen, and Arthur Secret. 1994. “The World-Wide Web.” Communications of the ACM 37 (8): 76–82. doi:10.1145/179606.179671.

Bertel, Troes F., and Gitte Stald. 2013. “From SMS to SNS: The Use of the Internet on the Mobile Phone among Young Danes.” In Mobile Media Practices, Presence and Politics: The Challenge of Being Seamlessly Mobile, edited by Kathleen M. Cumiskey and Larissa Hjorth, 198–213. New York: Routledge.

Best, Michael L. 2014. “The Internet That Facebook Built.” Communications of the ACM 57 (12): 21–23. doi:10.1145/2676857.

Bhana, Bhaveer, Stephen Flowerday, and Aharon Satt. 2013. “Using Participatory Crowdsourcing in South Africa to Create a Safer Living Environment.” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 2013: 1–13. doi:10.1155/2013/907196.

Bhattacharya, Prasanta, and William Thies. 2011. “Computer Viruses in Urban Indian Telecenters : Characterizing an Unsolved Problem.” In Proc ACM Workshop on Networked Systems for Developing Regions (NSDR 2011), 1–6. New York: ACM.

Bidwell, Nicola J, and Masbulele Jay Siya. 2013. “Situating Asynchronous Voice in Rural Africa.” In Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013 : 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 2-6, 2013, Proceedings, Part III, 36–53. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40477-1_3.

Bidwell, Nicola. 2010. “Ubuntu in the Network: Humanness in Social Capital in Rural Africa.” Interactions 17 (2): 68–71. doi:10.1145/1699775.1699791.

BizTechAfrica. 2014. “SA Author Writes Acclaimed Novel Using BlackBerry Smartphone.” BizTechAfrica. October 15.

Blodget, Henry. 2012. “Anyone Who Believes In ‘Mobile First’ Needs To Look At This Photo.” Business Insider. December 14.

Blom, Jan, Jan Chipchase, and Jaakko Lehikoinen. 2005. “Contextual and Cultural Challenges for User Mobility Research.” Communications of the ACM 48 (7): 37–41. doi:10.1145/1070838.1070863.

Blum, Andrew. 2012. Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet. New York: Ecco.

Boettinger, Henry M. 1977. “Our Sixth-and-a-Half Sense.” In The Socal Impact of the Telephone, edited by Ithiel de Sola Pool, 200–207. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Boone, Jon. 2011. “Taliban Target Mobile Phone Masts to Prevent Tipoffs from Afghan Civilians.” GuardianUK Online. November 11.

Boris Veldhuijzen van Zanten. 2012. “Why We’ve Decided to Stop Producing TNW Magazine for Android.” The Next Web. December 30.

Bosch, Tanja. 2008. “Wots Ur ASLR? Adolescent Girls’ Use of Cellphones in Cape Town.” Commonwealth Youth and Development 6 (2): 52–69.

boyd, danah m., and Nicole B. Ellison. 2007. “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (1): 210–30. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x.

Boyera, Stephane. 2007. “Can the Mobile Web Bridge the Digital Divide?” Interactions 14 (3): 12. doi:10.1145/1242421.1242433.

Bradley, Tony. 2015. “Location Tracking in Mobile Apps Is Putting Users at Risk.” CSO Online. January 16.

Bratton, M. 2013. “Briefing: Citizens and Cell Phones in Africa.” African Affairs 112 (447): 304–19. doi:10.1093/afraf/adt004.

Breslauer, David N., Robi N. Maamari, Neil A. Switz, Wilbur A. Lam, and Daniel A. Fletcher. 2009. “Mobile Phone Based Clinical Microscopy for Global Health Applications.” PloS One 4 (7): e6320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006320.

Breuer, Anita, and Jacob Groshek. 2014. “Online Media and Offline Empowerment in Post-Rebellion Tunisia: An Analysis of Internet Use During Democratic Transition.” Journal of Information Technology & Politics 11 (1): 25–44. doi:10.1080/19331681.2013.850464.

Brey, Phillip. 2003. “Theorizing Modernity and Technology.” In Modernity and Technology, edited by Thomas J. Misa, Phillip Brey, and Andrew Feenberg, 33–72. Cambridge, Mass., USA: The MIT Press.

Broadbent, Stefana; Bauwens, Valerie. 2008. “Understanding Convergence.” Interactions 15 (1): 23–27.

Brodkin, Jon. 2014. “Ubuntu Smartphones Will Cost $200-$400.” Ars Technica. March 12.

Brodkin, Jon. 2015. “AT&T Has 10 Businesses Paying for Data Cap Exemptions, and Wants More.” ArsTechnica. January 6.

Brown, Allen E., and Gerald G. Grant. 2010. “Highlighting the Duality of the ICT and Development Research Agenda.” Information Technology for Development 16 (2): 96–111. doi:10.1080/02681101003687793.

Brown, Jeffrey R., and Austan Goolsbee. 2002. “Does the Internet Make Markets More Competitive? Evidence from the Life Insurance Industry.” Journal of Political Economy 110 (3): 481–507.

Brownlee, John. 2013. “On Sale For $150: One Laptop Per Child Is Now A Touch Screen Tablet.” Fast Company Design. July 16.

Bruns, Axel. 2008. Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York, New York, USA: Peter Lang.

Bull, Michael. 2001. “The World According to Sound: Investigating the World of Walkman Users.” New Media & Society 3 (2): 179–97. doi:10.1177/14614440122226047.

Burleigh, Scott. 2013. “Nanosatellites for Universal Network Access.” In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM MobiCom Workshop on Lowest Cost Denominator Networking for Universal Access – LCDNet ’13, 33–34. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2502880.2502896.

Burns, Christopher, and Jonathan Dolan. 2014. “Building a Foundation for Digital Inclusion: A Coordinated Local Content Ecosystem.” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 9 (3-4): 33–42. doi:10.1162/inov_a_00214.

Burrell, Jenna, and Ken Anderson. 2008. “`I Have Great Desires to Look beyond My World’: Trajectories of Information and Communication Technology Use among Ghanaians Living Abroad.” New Media & Society 10 (2): 203–24. doi:10.1177/1461444807086472.

Burrell, Jenna. 2010. “Evaluating Shared Access: Social Equality and the Circulation of Mobile Phones in Rural Uganda.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 15 (2): 230–50. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2010.01518.x.

Burrell, Jenna. 2012. “Is the Digital Divide a Defunct Framework?” Global Policy (Blog). September 5.

Burrell, Jenna. 2012. Invisible Users: Youth in the Internet Cafes of Urban Ghana. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

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Carmody, Pádraig. 2009. New Socio-Economy in Africa? Thintegration and the Mobile Phone Revolution. The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series. Vol. 279. Institute for International Integration Studies.

Carmody, Pádraig. 2012. “The Informationalization of Poverty in Africa? Mobile Phones and Economic Structure.” Information Technologies & Interntional Development 8 (3): 1–17.

Castells, Manuel, Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol, Jack Linchuan Qiu, and Araba Sey. 2007. Mobile Communication and Society: A Global Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Castells, Manuel. 2001. The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Castells, Manuel. 2009. Communication Power. Oxford University Press.

Castells, Manuel. 2012. Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Cave, Martin, and Windfred Mfuh. 2011. “Rethinking Mobile Regulation for the Data Age.” In Making Broadband Accesible for All, 41–48. London: Vodafone Group.

Chadwick, Andrew. 2007. “Digital Network Repertoires and Organizational Hybridity.” Political Communication 24 (3): 283–301. doi:10.1080/10584600701471666.

Chamberlain, Sara. 2014. “A Mobile Guide Toward Better Health: How Mobile Kunji Is Improving Birth Outcomes in Bihar, India.” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 9 (3-4): 43–52. doi:10.1162/inov_a_00215.

Champanis, Michael, and Ulrike Rivett. 2012. “Reporting Water Quality.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development – ICTD ’12, 105–13. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2160673.2160688.

Chan, Michael. 2013. “Mobile Phones and the Good Life: Examining the Relationships among Mobile Use, Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being.” New Media & Society, December, 1461444813516836 – . doi:10.1177/1461444813516836.

Chanan, Michael. 2012. “Video, Activism and the Art of Small Media.” Transnational Cinemas 2 (2): 217–26. doi:10.1386/trac.2.2.217_7.

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Chaudhari, Nehaa. 2014a. “Pervasive Technologies: Access to Knowledge in the Marketplace.” Philladelphia, Penn, USA.

Chaudhari, Nehaa. 2014b. “Methodology: Sub Hundred Dollar Mobile Devices and Competition Law.” CIS Blog. November 25.

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Chetty, Marshini, Srikanth Sundaresan, Sachit Muckaden, Nick Feamster, and Enrico Calandro. 2013. “Measuring Broadband Performance in South Africa.” In Proceedings of the 4th Annual Symposium on Computing for Development – ACM DEV-4 ’13, 1–10. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2537052.2537053.

Chew, Han Ei, Mark Levy, and Vigneswara Ilavarasan. 2011. “The Limited Impact of ICTs on Microenterprise Growth : A Study of Businesses Owned by Women in Urban India.” Information Technologies & International Development 7 (4): 1–16.

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Chib, Arul, and Vivian Hsueh-Hua Chen. 2011. “Midwives with Mobiles: A Dialectical Perspective on Gender Arising from Technology Introduction in Rural Indonesia.” New Media & Society 13 (3): 486–501. doi:10.1177/1461444810393902.

Chib, Arul. 2013. “The Promise and Peril of mHealth in Developing Countries.” Mobile Media & Communication 1 (1): 69–75. doi:10.1177/2050157912459502.

Chigona, Wallace, Darry Beukes, Junaid Vally, and Maureen Tanner. 2009. “Can Mobile Internet Help Alleviate Social Exclusion in Developing Countries?” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries 36: 1–16.

Chigona, Wallace, Guy Kankwenda, and Saffia Manjoo. 2008. “The Uses and Gratifications of Mobile Internet among the South African Students.” In PICMET ’08 – 2008 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering & Technology (Cape Town July 27-31), 10:2197–2207. Washington, D. C.: IEEE. doi:10.1109/PICMET.2008.4599842.

Chigona, Wallace, O. Lekwane, Kim Westcott, and Agnes Chigona. 2011. “Uses, Benefits and Challenges of Public Access Points in the Face of Growth of Mobile Technology.” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries 49 (2006): 1–14.

Chipchase, Jan. 2005. “Understanding Non-Literacy as a Barrier to Mobile Phone Communication.” Nokia Research Center.

Chipchase, Jan. 2014. “Connectivity Is Not Binary, the Network Is Never Neutral.” Medium. September 2.

Chiumbu, Sarah. 2012. “Exploring Mobile Phone Practices in Social Movements in South Africa – the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign.” African Identities 10 (2). Routledge: 193–206. doi:10.1080/14725843.2012.657863.

Chu, Rodney Wai-chi, Leopoldina Fortunati, Pui-Lam Law, and Shanhua Yang, eds. 2012. Mobile Communication and Greater China. Routledge.

Chuma, Wallace. 2014. “The Social Meanings of Mobile Phones among South Africa’s ‘Digital Natives’: A Case Study.” Media, Culture & Society 36 (3): 398–408. doi:10.1177/0163443713517482.

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